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Microstructure, chemistry, and mineralogy approach for the diagnostics of metallic finds of the Tomba della Biga (Adria, Italy)
Authors Marrocchino E, Telloli C, Finotti S, Facchi A, Eftekhari N, De Vito C.  Year 2022
Pubblication type Paper International Journal with referee
Abstract This work is focused on the characterization of metallic finds that are part of an ancient
war biga from the Tomba della Biga, using different approaches for the diagnostics and also the
conservation of this important cultural heritage. The materials analyzed were brought to light in
the necropolis of Canal Bianco (Adria, Italy). The samples were analyzed using Optical Reflected
Light Microscopy (ORLM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and micro-Raman Spectroscopy
(µ-RS). The results highlighted the occurrence of two different alloys (Fe and Cu-Sn-bronze) showing
important structural and textural variations. These results, along with µ-RS, gave details on the
surface and subsurface morphology, as well as the microstructures and the chemical and mineralogical
composition of the finds. In particular, µ-RS highlighted the presence of magnetite and goethite as the
main mineralogical phases for Fe-samples and malachite, azurite and Cu-oxide for bronze samples.
In addition, an attempt was made to trace the manufacturing process, the purity of the alloys and the
degree of slagging. Results of analytical studies show corrosion products of the samples which could
be evidence of metallurgical aspects. The good state of conservation due to favorable conditions in
the burial environment preserved the metal finds from intense corrosion, supporting the hypothesis
that the samples reached equilibrium with soil during their life in the burial environment. This
proposed methodology based on the microstructure, chemistry and mineral microanalysis allows the
diagnostic and evaluation of the state of conservation of metallic finds.
Reference Applied Sciences, 12(22), (2022) 11365.
WEB Reference
Research unit TRAC
LastUpdate 27/01/2023
Related research topics
Code Topic Description
5 Materials Research, development and engineering in the field of advanced materials

impact factor Vero

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